Rare Book Exhibit

The Life, Letters, and Labours of Frances Galton by Karl Pearson, Galton Professor, University of London
Cambridge at the University Press, 1924

Volume III A: Correlation, Personal Identification, and Eugenics

from the library of Herman J. Doepner

inside cover

copyright page

copyright page

Francis Galton

Francis Galton, aged 66, from the copperplate prepared for Biometrika, Vol. II.

title page

title page


Bookplate of Samuel Galton.

the Greek girl

Extra Plate
The Greek Girl of the "Just Perceptible Difference" Lecture of 1893 (see Vol II, p. 309 and footnote;
the mislaid original has now been found).
The reader should place this plate some ten feet from his eye, and gradually approach it, noting the distance
at which the 342 small circles become distinguishable.

contents page

contents page

contents page

contents page

Galton's elliptic contour

Page 14
Diagram Based on Table I.
Fig. 4. Galton's Elliptic Contour drawn from his observations.

hereditary stature

Page 16
Rate of Regression in Hereditary Stature
Fig. 5. Galton's Second Regression Line and his "Forecaster of Stature."

stable  population reproduces

Page 28
Process Through Which the Distribution of Statures, in Successive Generations of the
Same People, Remains Unchanged.
Fig. 7. Galton's Diagram showing how a stable Population reproduces itself.


Plate II
Genometer After an Idea of Sir Francis Galton.


Plate II
Galton's "Ogive Curve" as exhibited by a marchalled series of Bean Pods. Unfortunately in the many
years since Galton built up this illustration several tips have been broken off and in other cases some
of the pods have burst open and the shell has curled round.

percentages of eye-colour

Page 35
Fig. 9. Percentages of Eye-Colour in Successive Generations.

fig. 10

Page 45
Fig. 10

painting reproduction

Plate III
Reproduction in close colour facsimile of Dr. Sorby's painting of a tree with the pigment from
black human hair. [Colouring matter largely from melanin pigment granules?]

painting reproduction

Plate IV
Reproduction in close colour facsimile of Dr. Sorby's painting of a tree with the pigment from
dark red human hair. [Colouring matter largely from the diffused pigment of the fibrillae?]

Galton's finger-prints

Page 138
Chapter XV
Personal Identification and Description
Fig. 15.

Sir William J. Herschel prints

Page 142
Fig. 16.
Finger Prints of Sir William J. Herschel at an interval of 28 years. From Galton's Finger Prints, Plate 15, Right Forefinger. Second method of marking minutiae.

Rajyadhar Konai's Contract

Plate V
Rajyadhar Konai's Contract made at Hooghly, 1858, which at Sir William J. Herschel's request
he signed with an imprint of his right hand as an identifiable sign-manual.

Solicitor finger-print

Plate VI
Fig. (v). J.R.H., a Solicitor, sliced a piece of his thumb; it was promptly replaced and
bound up. His finger-print shows by the ridges that the slice was put on wrong way round!

Finger-Print Enlargement

Page 156
Fig. 17.
Fig. 18.
Early Examples of Galton's Method of Finger-Print Enlargement.

outlining a rolled pattern

Page 164
Fig. 23. "Outlining" a rolled pattern.

persistence of minutiae

Plate VII
Persistence of minutiae at intervals of nine and twenty-eight years.

persistence of minutiae

Plate VIII
Persistence of minutiae at intervals of twenty-six, thirty and thirty-one years.

Thomas Bewick's mark

Page 175
Fig. 29
Thomas Bewick, his mark.

order on Camp Sutler

Page 175
Fig. 30.
Order on a Camp Sutler, by the officer of a surveying party in New Mexico 1882.

patterns of Purkenje

Plate IX
The Standard Patterns of Purkenje
Reproduced de novo from the copy of Purkenje's Commentatio in the Library of the Royal College of Surgeons.
The Cores of the Above Patterns.
Galton's Patterns from Purkenje's Types.

rolled impressions

Plate X
The specimens are rolled impressions of natural size. Galton was the first writer on the subject to introduce "rolling." All impressions are now rolled a and f are loops; b, c, d, e, g and h are various types of whorls. Finger Prints, Plate 5.

outlines of patterns

Plate XI
Outlines of Patterns in Arches and Loops.
Galton's nomenclature as aids to description and classification. Arches and Loops. From Galton's Finger Prints, Plate 7.

outlines of patterns

Plate XII
Outlines to Patterns in Whorls. Types of Cores.
Galton's nomenclature as aids to description and classification. From Galton's Finger Prints, Plate 8.

outlines of the patterns

Plate XIII
After Galton's Finger Prints, Plate 6.
Outlines of the Patterns of the Digits of Eight Persons, Taken at Random.
Ridges from inner (or radial) side have vertical hatching, from outer (or ulnar) side have horizontal hatching.

transitional patterns

Plate XIV
Transitional Patterns-Arches and Loops.
Transitional Patterns from Galton's Finger Prints, Plate 9, with suggested symbols. The prints are supposed to be of left-hand fingers.

transitional patterns

Plate XV
Transitional Patterns-Loops and Whorls.
Transitional Patterns from Galton's Finger Prints, Plate 10, with suggested symbols. The prints are supposed to be of left-hand fingers.

persistence of pattern

Plate XVI
To illustrate Persistence of Pattern in Finger Prints. From Galton's Finger Prints, Plate 13.

persistence of finger-print patterns

Plate XVII
Persistence of Finger-Print Patterns with corresponding minutiae like numbered.
Intervals of 9, 9, 26, 28, 28, 30, 31 and 31 years. Galton's illustrations from Herschel's material, Finger Prints, Plate 14.

left hand

Left Hand

right hand

Right Hand
Fingerprints of Like Twins
From the Collection in the Galtoniana.

treatment of blurred finger-prints

Plate XIX
Illustrations of Galton's Treatment of Blurred Finger-Prints (Data obtained through Sir William J. Herschel).

selected corresponding portions

Plate XX
Selected Corresponding Portions of the Hooghly Doublets (1878 and 1892) from Plate XIX.
Enlarged seven times preparatory to drawing central lines of ridges.

skeleton charts

Plate XXI
Skeleton Charts of the Central Lines of the Ridges of the Hooghly Doublets 1878 and 1892, drawn by aid of tracing paper from the prints on Plate XX.
Corresponding numbers in upper and lower prints indicate persistence of minutiae.

superposition of central lines of ridges

Plate XXII
Superposition of Central Lines of Ridges on enlarged Finger-Prints, i.e. Plate XXI overprinted on Plate XX, reproduced in fainter ink.

treated as arches

Types treated by Galton as Arches.

treated as loops

Plate XXIV
Types treated by Galton as Loops.

treated as whorls

Plate XXV
Types treated by Galton as Whorls.

counting the ridges

Plate XXVI
Galton's method of counting the Ridges in Loops. The number of ridges as determined by him are given in the left-hand top corner of each print: see our pp. 201-202.
A dabbed and a rolled print of the same finger to indicate how the former may lead one to classify as a loop, what the latter shows to be really a whorl: see our p. 213.

Galton's symbols

Illustrations of Galton's Symbols i, f, and c. (See our p. 205.)

Galton's symbols

Illustrations of Galton's Symbols y, v, vy. (See our p. 206.)

Galton's symbols

Plate XXIX
Galton's Symbols applied to Noteworthy Peculiarities. (See our p. 208).

Galton's secondary classification

Plate XXX
Various Prints with Galton's Classifications.
To illustrate the Symbols of Galton's Secondary Classification.

finger-print camera

Page 215
Fig. 41. Galton's Finger-Print Enlarging Camera.

a Christmas greeting

Page 216
Fig. 42. A Christmas Greeting to Francis Galton "from an affectionate and admiring friend."

Francis Galton

Plate XXXI
Francis Galton, the Founder of the Science of Eugenics, from a photograph of 1902,
by the late Mr. Dew-Smith. (By kind permission of Mrs. Dew-Smith.)

standard scheme of descent

Page 230
Fig. 43.
Standard Scheme of Descent
Modified from Galton's original scheme by taking better numerical values for stature in Man, and the
assortative mating not perfect.

Francis Galton

Francis Galton, about the age of 80.

in Galton's letter

Page 255
Enclosure in Galton's Letter of March 2, 1903.


Illustration of Galton's method of measuring "interspaces" in terms of "mean ridge interval." From Letter
of March 16, 1903. The "pricks," needle-pointed through the letter paper, are not visible in the reproduction; the
original had to be held up to the light to see them.

Galton at 82

Francis Galton in 1904, aged 82.

Charles Darwin at 31 and 33

Plate XXXV
Two portraits of Charles Darwin: on the right at age 31, from a water-colour painting by
Richmond, formerly in the possession of his daughter, Mrs. Litchfield; on the left at age
33, with his eldest son William, from a daguerreotype, in the possession of Lady
George Darwin.

Galton at 87

Francis Galton, aged 87, on the stoep at Fox Holm, Cobham, with his biographer.

a reverie

A reverie, caught "when the spirit was not there."

Galton and Gifi

Francis Galton, aged 87, on the stoep at Fox Holm, Cobham, in 1909, with
the faithful Gifi and the Albino puppy Wee Ling.

Apollo and the Hours

Guido Reni's Picture of Apollo and the Hours preceded by Aurora, from the Casino of the
Palazzo Rospigliosi, Rome. Reproduced by kind permission of The Architect
(March 14, 1885).

Galton at 88

Plate XL
Francis Galton, aged 88, from a sketch made by Frank Carter, twelve days before
Galton's death.

Galton after death

Plate XLI
Francis Galton, January 17th, 1911, from a photograph taken after death.

Church at Claverdon

Plate XLII
The Church at Claverdon, with the iron railings surrounding the vault where Galton's
body lies.

Sir William J. Herschel's finger-prints

Page 439
Finger-prints of Sir William J. Herschel's right forefinger at 54 years'
interval, the longest known proof of persistence. The 1913 print shows
the creases which develop with old age. Cf. p. 142 above.

Sir Francis Galton's Standard Finger-Prints (Hitherto Unpublished)

Sir Francis Galton's Standard Finger-Prints (Hitherto Unpublished)

Sir Francis Galton's Standard Finger-Prints (Hitherto Unpublished)


Pedigree Showing Further Connections of Charles Robert Darwin with Noteworthy Ancestors.
Issued by the Francis Galton Laboratory for National Eugenics.